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9 Exercises for Your Best Upper-Body Workout

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If crafting the perfect upper body were simple, we’d all be walking around with rockstar guns, and performing everyday feats of strength (like getting that couch out of the moving truck) would be a nonissue. But push-ups are hard. And pull-ups are even harder. And that can be discouraging when so many upper-body workout routines include both of those moves. Luckily, they’re not the only upper-body exercises you can do to get defined arms and a built back. By incorporating other upper-body exercises into your routine, you can work even more muscle groups to create the best upper-body workout yet.

How do you build upper-body strength?

Push-ups and pull-ups are highly functional exercises to help you build upper-body strength, and they certainly can have their place in any upper-body workout routine. But if you’re not very good at them, there are plenty of other exercises that can help you build strength and size. Even if you’re a fan, you should still round out your routine with a variety of upper-body exercises to keep challenging your body.

Plus, if you want to build muscle definition or size, you can’t discount the value of doing an upper-body workout with dumbbells. Although bodyweight exercises are an excellent way to build muscle, adding weight to your routine allows you to challenge your muscles in new ways.

To build bigger, stronger muscles (upper body or otherwise), here are some things you should keep in mind:

Keep challenging your muscles. You can do this by adding more weight, doing more reps, or reducing rest periods between sets. You don’t need to change a lot every single work out — even minor tweaks can help keep your muscles progressing. Do more sets. Instead of going as hard as you can for just one set, research has found that lifters who performed three to five sets saw more strength gains, muscle endurance, and hypertrophy than those who just did one set per exercise. Eat right. Protein is essential when it comes to building muscle. Make sure you’re eating enough and that you’re eating it at the right time (hint: try after you exercise). Beachbody Performance Recover offers 20 grams of high-quality protein to help your muscles grow and repair after a challenging workout.

Get even more tips on how to build muscle in this guide.

9 of the Best Exercises for Your Next Upper-Body Workout

This list of upper-body exercises will help you build the upper body you’ve always wanted. Plus, you can do them from the comfort of your own home — all you need for this upper-body dumbbell workout are dumbbells (or resistance bands) and a bench or stability ball.

1. Bent-over row

Appears in: The 20’s – Rachel – I Do: Strength
Benefits: “No one can ever do enough rows,” says Tony Gentilcore, C.S.C.S, owner of CORE gym in Boston. By offsetting many of the postural issues associated with sitting hunched over a computer all day, rows can help eliminate back pain and correct your posture, giving your entire body a visual lift, he says.

Stand tall, holding a set of dumbbells at your sides, with your palms facing your body. (You can also use a resistance band: Loop the band around each foot. Hold the left handle in your right hand and the right handle in your left hand so that that the band forms an “X.”) Keeping your back flat, core braced, and knees slightly bent, bend at the waist so that your back is just above parallel with the floor. Your arms should hang toward the floor. Row the dumbbells to the sides of your ribs, squeezing your shoulder blades together at the top of the movement. Pause, then slowly lower your arms back down, and repeat. 2. Arnold press

Appears in: Clean Week – Strength
Benefits: “Arnold Schwarzenegger was smart in the gym, and this exercise remains a weight room favorite after decades,” says Kourtney Thomas, C.S.C.S. Why? Because it hits all three sections of the deltoid muscle at one time: the anterior (front), medial (side), and posterior (rear).

Hold two dumbbells in front of your chest with your palms facing toward your body, keeping your elbows close to your body. This is your starting position. Press the dumbbells up above your head, rotating your palms out so that when you reach the overhead position, they face away from your body. Reverse the motion to lower the dumbbells back down, corkscrewing your hands so your palms end facing your body, and repeat.

Tip: You can perform this exercise seated or standing. “Seated, you’ll be able to press a little more weight,” Thomas says. “Standing, you’ll get more core engagement because you’re being forced to stabilize your entire body throughout the move.”

3. Dumbbell bench press

Appears in: The Master’s Hammer and Chisel – Max Hammer Strength
Benefits: For those who struggle with push-ups, the bench press allows you to train the pecs, triceps, and shoulders in a different way. For push-up masters, the bench press allows you to use more than just your body weight to work these muscles, which is vital to adding significant strength or definition, Gentilcore explains.

Lay with your back on a flat bench, holding a dumbbell in each hand directly above your chest. Raise your arms straight above your chest, palms facing forward. Bend your elbows to lower the dumbbells until your upper arms are parallel with the floor. Pause, then press up and slightly in so that you end with your arms fully extended, and repeat. 4. Pullover

Appears in: The Master’s Hammer and Chisel – Total Body Chisel
Benefits: This move might look simple, but there’s actually a lot going on — specifically when it comes to building your lats and pecs, Thomas says. Bonus: You’ll feel your core fire up with every rep, too.

Lay with your back on a flat bench, holding a set of dumbbells. With your feet planted on the ground and your core engaged, extend your arms to the sky, holding the dumbbells together above your chest. With a slight bend in your elbows, slowly lower your arms overhead until your biceps reach your ears. Slowly bring your arms back to above your chest and repeat.

Tip: You might be tempted to drop the dumbbells overhead by arching the back and lifting the ribs, Thomas says. Avoid this by keeping your core engaged throughout the exercise.

5. Dumbbell rear-delt fly

Appears in: Clean Week – Strength
Benefits: Speaking of the delts, the posterior delt (aka rear delt) is sorely undertrained — this is one reason shoulder injuries are so common. If you only train the section of the delts you can see head-on, you’ll alter the shoulder positioning. This limits certain movements and causes the joint to work inefficiently.

Stand tall, holding a set of dumbbells down at your sides. Keeping your back flat, push your hips back to hinge forward and lower your chest until it is almost parallel with the ground. Allow the weights to hang straight down at arm’s length, palms facing each other. Maintaining a slight bend in your elbows and keeping your back flat, lift the dumbbells to the side by squeezing the shoulder blades together. Stop when the dumbbells are in line with your body. Pause, then slowly lower the dumbbells back to start, and repeat.

Tip: Be careful not to use momentum to help you raise the dumbbells. Perform each rep slowly and with control. Imagine squeezing an orange between your shoulder blades each time you lift the bells.

6. Standing bicep curl

Appears in: SHIFT SHOP – Strength: 25
Benefits: Apart from building the biceps — everyone’s favorite vanity muscle — biceps curls are actually excellent for promoting shoulder stability, Gentilcore says. The trick is to focus on keeping your shoulders stationary with very rep.

Stand tall with your feet shoulder-width apart, holding two dumbbells at your sides, palms facing away from your body. Keeping your back straight and your elbows locked at your sides, slowly curl the weights as close to your shoulders as possible. Slowly lower back to start and repeat.

Tip: Fight the “ego lifting” urge. Choose weights that you can lift by only bending your elbow, not allowing any movement elsewhere in your body. If your shoulders move, elbows flare, or torso leans, or you find yourself bouncing, you need to go down in weights. You can also perform this exercise by holding onto and standing on a resistance band.

7. Skull crusher press

Appears in: INSANITY: The Asylum Vol. 1 – Strength
Benefits: Biceps may get most of the glory when it comes to arm muscles, but the triceps can be equally impressive when you build them up. Not only does this move help you build triceps that will pop, but the press action also activates the shoulders.

Stand holding a single dumbbell with both hands by the weighted ends at shoulder height, with your elbows tucked. Press the weight straight overhead. Without moving your upper arms, lower the weight behind your head. Reverse the movements to return to the starting position, and repeat.

Tip: You might be surprised how light of a weight you need to perform this exercise. Start with lighter weights to maintain proper form, and add weight as you become more experienced with the move.

8. Seated overhead tricep extension

Appears in: Body Beast – Bulk: Arms
Benefits: Round out the tricep exercises with this exercise. It isolates the tricep muscles, making the most out of every rep.

Seated at the end of a bench, hold one end of the dumbbell with both hands behind your head, arms bent at 90 degrees. Keeping your back flat and your elbows tucked, slowly push the weight up, stopping just short of full extension. Pause, and then lower the weight slowly back down, and repeat.

Tip: Keep your torso straight throughout the movement and resist the urge to lean forward. You can also perform this move standing, which will require greater use of your core for added stability.

9. Floor chest fly

Appears in: P90X3 – Incinerator
Benefits: This move targets the chest muscles in ways other exercises like push-ups and bench presses can’t, Thomas says. And you don’t even need a bench — just a set of dumbbells!

Lay with your back on the floor, your knees bent and your feet flat, holding a pair of dumbbells directly over your chest with your palms facing each other. Allow a slight bend in your elbows. Slowly lower the dumbbells out to your sides, creating a wide arc with your arms until your upper arms lightly touch the floor. Pause, then slowly reverse the movement to return to the top, and repeat.

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Question of the Day: How Big of a Deal is Alcohol When it Comes to My Fitness Goals?

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Building a Strong Immune System

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Just as we strive to condition our physical bodies with exercise and nutrition, we can also strive to condition and strengthen ourselves on a cellular level. I have not been sick, not even a cold, since 1989.

Our bodies are created with a beautiful defense called the immune system. It fights off foreign antigens and pathogens and protects and defends healthy cells. Immunity, or a healthy immune response, activates via processing through receptors that identify a foreign antigen. B cells and T cells must first recognize that a foreign antigen is present for an immune response to occur. B cells are able to bind to antigens and produce antibodies to create an antibody-mediated immunity. T cells recognize antigenic proteins and attack and eliminate the intruders, creating a cell-mediated immunity. Different T cells have different responses and functions related to the type of antigen that is intruding. There are killer T cells, suppressor T cells and memory T cells, among others, that mediate a class of allergic response. All have their specific function, along with B cells as a natural mechanism that is programmed in our bodies, working in conjunction with cytokines, small protein hormones that regulate immune response to build resistance and ward off disease.

The primary objective of our immune system is to ward off and build a resistance to disease. It also has the ability to create immunological memory, in which memory B cells and memory T cells remain after the primary response of exposure to an antigen. In doing so, it is better prepared to respond to any secondary exposures. Over time, our bodies learn to build a specific resistance to a specific antigen and create antibodies to destroy future intrusion by the antigen. This is how we naturally build immunity against diseases.

I believe in allowing my body to perform its natural response functions as they relate to immunity. Coming in contact with pathogens and antigens helps us to build strong resistance to diseases, of both a viral or bacterial nature.  By allowing the natural response to occur, our immune systems gain strength by being able to do what they were designed to do – ward off, resist and recognize for future exposure. It is the natural defense of the body.

Just as we strive to condition our physical bodies with exercise and nutrition, we can also strive to condition and strengthen ourselves on a cellular level. I have not been sick, not even a cold, since 1989. For over three decades I have kept my immune system strong by proper nutrition, hydration, exercise, hygiene, rest and supplementation. I am consistent and diligent in executing these areas daily. My nutrition consists of five healthy, organic meals per day. I space my meals by three-hour intervals. I hydrate with one gallon of water each day. I weight train six days per week, and perform cardiovascular exercise seven days per week for 30 minutes each day. As a hygiene rule, I never touch my face, and I thoroughly wash my hands before eating or drinking. I sleep between six to eight hours per night. All of these good habits continue to improve and strengthen my immune system, but I give a great deal of credit to my supplementation. Here is a list of my daily vitamins, minerals, and amino acids:

With Meal One

1 Solgar VM-75

2000 IU Nature Made Vitamin D3 tablets

3 capsules (1,575 mg) Nature’s Way Dandelion Root

1 tbsp Barlean’s Liquid Omegas

 

With Meal Two

2000 IU Nature Made Vitamin D3 tablets

250 mg Nature Made Magnesium tablet

50 mg Solgar Zinc tablet

With Meal Three

1 Solgar VM-75

1000 IU Nature Made Vitamin D3 tablet

250 mg Nature Made Magnesium tablet

3 mg boron tablet

Pre-exercise: 1 scoop of Original Xtend Branched Chain Amino Acids + Electrolytes, 30 minutes prior to exercise. Xtend contains 1000 mg of citrulline malate, which is an important nutrient that may provide immune-strengthening properties to our bodies.

Note: Please consult with a physician before the use of any supplement, especially if an individual is on a prescribed medication. The dosages listed above are my own personal regimen. Women and children may adjust to lower dosages of the above-mentioned vitamins, minerals and amino acids, just as each individual may require different dosages. Thorough blood work can give you insight as to the vitamins and minerals that may be lacking in your own personal body.

A strong, healthy, functioning immune system can benefit us in so many ways. It may provide consistent health, longevity, recovery and overall well-being to be enjoyed throughout your years. Health is our greatest commodity, so with the application of good habits, create the best environment in your body and enjoy it every day!

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Is Stretching Good for You?

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To stretch or not to stretch: That is the question.

Some trainers swear it’s essential; others argue that it’s worthless. Some say you shouldn’t even touch a weight until you’ve thoroughly stretched every muscle; others warn that preworkout stretching is counterproductive, even dangerous.

Don’t roll up your mat just yet, though — there’s a reason for the confusion.

“When most people think ‘stretching,’ they think of a runner putting their foot up on a railing, and holding it there for 15 seconds before they run,” says trainer and injury-prevention expert John Rusin, DPT, CSCS, PPSC. But there’s a lot more to flexibility training.

Simple as it sounds, stretching can cover a broad range of activities, Rusin says — from powerful, explosive moves to slower, more soothing ones. And they all play a role in optimizing your fitness, no matter your preferred sport or activity.

3 Types of Stretching:

Static Stretching

  • This is the type that comes to mind when most people think of stretching: You assume a position that elongates a muscle or set of muscles — by reaching for your toes, for example — and hold the position for 30 seconds or more. Restorative yoga is an example.

Dynamic Stretching

  • This approach consists of powerful, repeated movements, performed with an extended range of motion, often incorporating athletic movements like reaching, running, or jumping. Think front and high-knee kicks, arm circles, walking lunges, and many other moves familiar to field athletes.

Targeted Mobility

  • Probably the least familiar modality to most gym-goers: You get into a stretch and systematically contract areas around the stretching muscles to enhance function and strength. As the name suggests, most moves focus on mobilizing a single joint, and sometimes a single movement in one joint. Variations include proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, functional range conditioning, and many physical-therapy treatments.

By incorporating the right stretching techniques into your routine, you can ensure steady progress in mobility, athleticism, and range of motion — all essential components of an effective and balanced fitness program.

Static Stretching: Classic Flexibility-Builder

The original stretch is an oldie but a goodie. Despite research suggesting that static stretching temporarily reduces strength, most trainers still recommend this approach.

Why? Recent research, including a 2019 meta-review of past studies, indicates that any reduction in strength and power caused by short sessions of static stretching is minimal (less than 2 percent) and short-lived (10 minutes or less). So unless you’re preparing to compete in an athletic event requiring maximal strength and power (tennis or golf, for example), or trying to hit a personal record in a lift, light preworkout stretching should not be a problem.

In fact, the benefits of static stretching often depend on when you do it:

  • Before your workout. If you’re about to perform an activity that requires a significant range of motion — a barbell squat, a tour jeté, or a high roundhouse kick, for example — static stretching associated muscles beforehand can be beneficial. For example, if you feel constriction through the hips, performing a hip-flexor stretch before squatting could help, says Rusin.
  • After your workout. “Static stretching enhances the parasym­pathetic, or rest-and-digest, arm of the nervous system,” he notes. “That makes it great to use after exercise, when you’re trying to wind down rather than ramp up.” Postworkout, your muscles are also loose, warm, and engorged with blood — a perfect time to lengthen them with minimal risk of injury.
  • Between workouts. Are there chronically tight areas of your body that don’t seem to relax no matter what you do? If so, it’s a good idea to stretch those areas on off days, during breaks at work, or before bed on workout days, holding the positions for up to five minutes each. Tight hip flexors, calves, pectorals, and glutes are common among desk workers, so stretch those areas regularly.

Whenever you do a static stretch, be specific about your alignment and focus, and be sure you’re stretching the right area: A few inches can mean the difference between an effective and an ineffective stretch.

Additionally, be prepared to spend some time in each stretch. “A pitfall with static stretching is that people don’t hold the stretch long enough to see any change,” explains Mike Thomson, CSCS, USATF, a Life Time personal trainer.

“Many people pull their arm across the body to stretch their triceps and lateral deltoid or grab their foot behind their body to stretch their quad — but hold it for only 10 to 20 seconds. That doesn’t do much to increase flexibility over time.” Aim for a minimum of one to two minutes in each static stretch.

And “static” doesn’t mean you should remain motionless. Instead, oscillate slightly in, out, and around the stretched position. Breathe deeply, Rusin advises, and try to settle farther into the stretch on each exhale.

“Small movements create more feedback from the nervous system.”

Static Stretches

Standing Adductor Stretch

illustration of standing adductor stretch

  • Place your hands on a table or bench.
  • Straighten your arms and step back from the bench a few feet.
  • Keeping your feet parallel, step your feet out until they are about two shoulder widths apart.
  • Keeping your lower back in its natural arch and your head and neck aligned with your spine, lower your chest toward the floor until you feel a deep stretch in your adductors (inner thighs) and hamstrings (backs of your legs).
  • Maintaining excellent alignment in your torso, bend your right leg slightly, sinking into the stretch.
  • Hold for five seconds, then repeat the move on the other side.
  • Continue alternating sides for 60 seconds.

Low-Lunge Hip-Flexor Stretch

illustration of low lunge hip flexor stretch

  • Assume a half-kneeling position: right knee on the floor, left foot standing, torso upright, both knees and your left hip bent 90 degrees.
  • Keeping your hips and shoulders square, tuck your pelvis as if attempting to point your tailbone between your legs.
  • Maintaining this position, slowly rock your pelvis forward several inches until you feel a deep stretch in the front of your right hip.
  • Continue oscillating in and out of the stretch for 60 seconds on each side.

Doorway Stretch

illustration of doorway stretch

  • Stand behind a doorway and raise your arms out to the sides so that your elbows are about 5 inches higher than your shoulders.
  • Draw your head and chin backward (as if making a double chin) and keep them there throughout the movement.
  • Place the insides of your forearms against the sides of the jamb.
  • Take a deep breath in, and on an exhale, press your chest through the doorway.
  • Remain there for 60 seconds, breathing deeply, and attempting to press your chest farther forward on each exhale

Dynamic Stretching: Prepping to Move

Nothing gets you ready to move like dynamic stretching — large, controlled, repetitive movements that take your joints through a large range of motion.

Depending on your goals and fitness level, these moves can be relatively low intensity (think ankle or wrist circles), high intensity (walking lunges, jumping jacks, and inchworms), or somewhere in between.

The benefits are many. “Dynamic stretching is something I do before all exercise,” says Thomson. “It’s good for taking the joints and muscles through their full range of motion,” as well as increasing blood flow and instilling good movement patterns. “It’s also beneficial for the brain to know it’s game time.”

The best time to do dynamic stretching is prior to working out, when you’re trying to ramp up your muscles and nervous system to perform high-tension, high-intensity exercise with a large range of motion. After a few minutes, you’ll feel warmer, looser, more aligned, and ready to attack your workout.

It’s also a great option whenever you need a shot of energy during the day.

One caveat: Good form is essential. This type of warm-up requires substantial control and stability. In general, that means your hips and shoulders should be square, your neck should be aligned with your spine, your shoulders should be relaxed, and your breath should be smooth and continuous. Twisting, shrugging, bending, and holding your breath are all compensations for limited movement in the target area, explains Rusin.

The first few times you perform the moves below, use a mirror: They should look and feel smooth and athletic. If you can’t manage these (or any other) dynamic stretches with control and precision, stick to static stretches until you’ve become more comfortable in the correct positions.

Dynamic Stretches

Superman Stiff-Leg Deadlift

illustration of superman stiff leg deadlift

  • Stand upright in a hallway, field, or other open space.
  • Step forward with your right foot.
  • Keeping your left leg long, your left foot pointed toward the floor, and your lower back in its natural arch, hinge forward on your right hip, extending your arms forward, until your torso, arms, and left leg form a straight line parallel to the floor.
  • Pause in the extended position with your right leg slightly bent. You should feel a deep stretch in the hamstrings of your supporting leg.
  • Slowly return to an upright position, lowering your arms to your sides.
  • Repeat the move on the other side.
  • Continue for a total of six to eight reps per side.

Pigeon Walk

illustration of walking pigeon stretch

  • Stand upright in a hallway, field, or other open space.
  • Step forward with your right foot.
  • Keeping your torso upright, raise your left knee to your chest, and take hold of your ankle with your right hand and your knee with your left.
  • Flexing your left foot, pull your ankle as close to your belly button as possible, supporting your left knee in your left hand until you feel a deep stretch in your left glute.
  • Lower your left foot to the floor, step forward with your right foot, and repeat for a total of six to eight reps per side.

Targeted Mobility: Working Your Edge

This newer form of stretching is used by practitioners of many different systems, including proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), fascial stretch therapy (FST), and functional range conditioning (FRC). Its purpose is not only to increase a joint’s range of motion but to improve your ability to control and generate force throughout that entire range as well.

“Every joint has both an active and a passive range of motion,” explains fitness coach and Kinstretch instructor Beth Lewis, FRC.

To illustrate, try this: Stand, raise your right knee in front of you as high as you can, and take note of how high it goes. That’s your active range of motion — the distance you can move the joint without assistance.

Then, Lewis says, lower your knee and repeat — this time, hugging your knee close to your chest with your right arm: You’ll easily get your knee a few inches higher. That’s your passive range — the distance the joint can move when you apply force and relax into the stretch.

“There’s always a difference,” she says.

If that difference is large — that is, your joints can achieve ranges of motion that your muscles on their own can’t control — the chances of injury when you fall, jump, or lift a heavy weight increase.

“With the right training, you can close the gap between your active and passive range,” she says. This will reduce injury risk and increase your capacity for safe and powerful athletic movement.

These improvements rarely come easily or quickly, which is why experts recommend practicing targeted mobility work with a qualified professional. The drills below, however, will give you a taste and help improve the functional range in your major joints.

Lewis suggests you practice the moves before workouts as a warm-up or between workout days.

“You can do many of these moves sitting in a chair,” she says. “The key is to give your brain constant input that your joints can move that way.”

Targeted Mobility Moves

Segmental Cat–Cow

illustration of segmental cat cow

  • Assume an all-fours posture, hands below shoulders, knees below hips.
  • Round the back upward (into the cat position) dropping your chin to your chest.
  • Keeping your head and the rest of your back still, raise your tailbone upward, creating a slight arch in your lower back.
  • Slowly arch your midback, upper back, and neck in sequence, attempting to articulate each joint of the spine until your back is fully arched in cow position. Raise your head at the end of the move so that you are looking forward. Don’t pull your shoulder blades together; simply articulate the spine between them.
  • Starting at the tailbone, tuck your pelvis and sequentially articulate your spine the other way until you are back to the cat position.
  • Repeat the move three to five times, attempting to slow the move. Articulate each joint of the spine as clearly as you can with each repetition.

Scapular-Controlled Articular Rotations

illustration of scapular controlled articulation

  • Sit or stand in an upright position with your head stacked on top of your spine, arms hanging by your sides, and your feel parallel and shoulder width apart.
  • Breathing freely throughout the movement, shrug your shoulders up as high as possible.
  • Without craning your neck forward, slowly roll your shoulders back as far as possible, pulling your shoulder blades together.
  • Lower your shoulders down, pressing them toward your hips.
  • Bring your shoulders as far forward as possible, keeping your head in neutral.
  • Continue slowly circling your shoulders back three to five times, then reverse the move for an additional three to five repetitions.

Hip-Controlled Articular Rotations

illustration of mobility hip controlled articular rotation

  • Assume an all-fours posture with your hands below your shoulders and your knees below your hips.
  • Keep your arms straight and your torso as flat as possible throughout the move.
  • Slowly extend your left leg directly behind you, keeping your toes pointed downward.
  • Turn your foot outward and lift your knee outward to your side (as if getting on a horse).
  • Continue circling your thigh, drawing your knee as close as possible to your chest.
  • Extend your leg behind you and repeat the move for five to eight repetitions, then perform the move with your opposite leg.

The Science Behind the Stretch

When a muscle feels tight — whether it’s because you’ve charged into a new activity, performed repetitive movement patterns, or settled into sedentary postures — you instinctively stretch it out. This might feel great in the moment, but the effect is usually fleeting. To get the most out of each stretch, it’s important to stay with it long enough to convince your brain and nervous system to release the tension.

Certain structures in your muscles and tendons, including muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organ (GTO), send signals to adjust course when a muscle stretches too far or too fast, in order to protect the joint from injury. It’s important to hold the stretch for more than about 30 seconds — or move in and out of the stretch position repeatedly — to encourage these structures to release their hold, explains fitness coach and Kinstretch instructor Beth Lewis, FRC.

With practice, proper stretching raises the body’s tolerance for larger ranges of motion, and the effects of stretching become more sustained. But if you stop stretching, the muscles will return to their shortened state. “It’s a use-it-or-lose-it proposition,” says Lewis.

Long, sustained stretches — lasting up to several minutes — may over time elongate muscles and tendons. But short of that, stretching is less a matter of mechanically increasing a muscle’s length, and more about teaching your brain and nervous system that you’re safe at larger joint angles.

“You’re not only stretching tissue,” explains trainer and injury-prevention expert John Rusin, DPT, CSCS, PPSC. “You’re educating your joints.”

Stretching, then, is a form of movement practice that involves all of you: brain, nervous system, and supporting joints — as well as the tissues you’re stretching. Its effects, Rusin cautions, will be significantly reduced if you perform the movements while distracted. “If you’re not focusing and breathing deeply as you perform these stretches, they become almost useless.”

This article originally appeared as “Stretch Your Fitness” in the April 2021 issue of Experience Life.

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